“Wine was an important good in Plascencia. When importing into the city, taxes and duties were levied against it before it could enter through one of the gates. Members of the church had special privileges with wine, which were quickly used for less than reputable means.”
Bibliography: Martínez-Dávila Roger L. Creating Conversos: The Carvajal-Santa María Family in Early Modern Spain. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2018.
Middleton, Neil. “Early Medieval Port Customs, Tolls and Controls on Foreign Trade.” Early Medieval Europe 13, no. 4 (2005): 313–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0254.2….
Hine, Nick. 2016. “How the Church Saved the Wine Industry During Prohibition.” Vine Pair, December 20. Ruiz, Hilario Casado Alonso & Teofilo F. 2019. “Economic Life in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain, 1085–1815.” “Regulating the Wine Trade.” The Wine Trade in Medieval Europe 1000–1500, n.d. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472599285….
Carter, F. W. “Cracow’s Wine Trade (Fourteenth to Eighteenth Centuries).” The Slavonic and East European Review 65, no. 4 (1987): 537–78. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4209630. Martinez-Davila, Roger. n.d. Global Middle Ages . Accessed December 3, 2021. http://globalmiddleages.org/sites/def….
Images: Giuseppe Maria Mitelli. Man in a Wine-Cellar with Two Barrels of Wine. Images, n.d. https://jstor.org/stable/community.12….
Paintings and pictures of Plasencia by David Roberts (1837) and Acuarela de Edward Wigram (1906)
Chalice: Artist: Anonymous (Byzantine). 602-610. Chalice. chalices. Place: The Walters Art Museum, Acquired by Henry Walters, 1929, 57.642, [Excavated in Syria, 1908-1910]; Tawfic Abucasem, Hama and Port Said, ca. 1913, by purchase; Joseph Brummer, Paris, ca. 1928, by purchase; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1929, by purchase; Walters A. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Communion: Francisco de Goya. 1819. Final Communion of Saint Joseph of Calasanz. painting. Place: Escuelas Pφas de San Ant≤n, Madrid, Spain. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Communion 2: Joos van Gent. 1473-1474. Communion of the Apostles. painting. Place: Galleria nazionale delle Marche. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Map of Spain: HESSEL GERRITSZ, ( Gerrits , Gerrittss , Gerritszoon, Gerrittzz ., Gherritsz. ), ( Hesselo ), ( G. A. , Gerardo , Gerhartio , Gherardo ), ( Hesselius Gerardus ), ( Hesselij Gerardi ), ( Hesselum Gerardum ), ( Hesselium Gerardi ), ( Hesselus Gerardus. 1614. Map of Spain and Portugal. Place: Stockholm, Riksarkivet. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Map of Spain 2: 1482. Map: Spain by Nicolaus Germanus woodcut, colored by hand. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Communion 3: Guillaume de Deguilleville. c. 1400. Le Pèlerinage de la vie humaine., Folio #: fol. 013v. Manuscript. Place: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Man Destroying Wine: Cruikshank, George, Johnston, James. A man destroys his entire wine stock to the horror of his wife. Wood-engraving by J. Johnston, c. 1864, after G. Cruikshank..
Clippings. Periodical illustrations. Wood engravings.. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..
Drunk Man: Goez, Joseph Franz, Brichet, Robert. A drunken young man raises a glass in one hand and spills wine from a flask in the other. Coloured etching by R.F. Brichet, 1784, after J. F. de Göz.. Etchings.. Place: HREF=https://wellcomecollection.org/Wellcome Collection. https://library-artstor-org.libproxy…..